What is time? When did it begin? Did it begin with a big bang at the beginning of the universe? Or is it infinite, with no beginning or end? Could we possibly travel through time? If humans could actually construct a machine that could reach the speed of light, could living matter survive such speeds? These are among the many questions that an international team of scholars explore in this wide-ranging examination of concepts of time. With the editor’s interest in evolutionary biology, it is no surprise that many of the more than 600 articles of this encyclopedia examine biological and geological measures of time. The fossil record, erosion, plate tectonics, ice ages and mass extinctions all give us different perspectives on both time and change. Studies of fertility cycles, longevity, DNA and trees trace the temporal constraints on both individual living organisms and species. Of course, astronomy and physics have also provided tangible measures of time. From the most ancient times, humans noticed the phases of the moon, solstices and comets and developed a variety of myths and calendars to rationalize and predict these events. From sundials to atomic clocks, the man-made instruments for measuring time are explained. Thus, in this encyclopedia, the views of world religions on both time and the eternal share space with explorations of black holes, the development of stars and the evolving universe. From ancient Greek philosophers to Albert Einstein, learned theories of time are explained. Similarly, literary works from Hesiod and Homer to Ray Bradbury and J.R.R. Tolkien provide insight into popular attitudes and ideas about time. Also presented are cultural expressions of time found in art, music, folklore and history. Perhaps the only aspects of time that are missing are those conceptions of life and time that accompanied industrialization, such as working on a clock, a 40-hour work week and leisure time. Nonetheless, this encyclopedia provides the most comprehensive survey available of the ideas of time and their ubiquitous influence on our world. This set is highly recommended for academic libraries.