The fifth century B.C. witnessed many of the crowning military glories of classical Greece. Despite overwhelming odds, the incessantly competitive Greeks combined their efforts to turn back two Persian invasions, first at Marathon; later at Salamis and Plataea. Athens capitalized on these victories by forming the Delian League and liberating Thrace, the Aegean islands and Ionia from Persian rule. However, the Athenians overstretched with invasions of Sicily and the Peloponnese. Ultimately, Sparta would win the long civil war, but their hegemony was soon challenged by Thebes and other city states. A life-long military history enthusiast, Fred Ray uses the works of both ancient and modern historians to reconstruct 173 battles during this watershed period of ancient history. He precedes descriptions of individual actions with an analysis of Greek hoplite warfare, or the heavily armored spearmen that served as the basis of the Greek phalanx. Beginning with the Ionian revolts and proceeding chronologically through the end of the Peloponnesian Wars, Ray describes the background and details of major wars, campaigns and battles. His discussion of battles includes analyses of the strengths of armies, battle plans, detailed descriptions of maneuvers and the course of battle. The author reviews the frequently scanty evidence and reconstructs events using historical accounts, memorial inscriptions, battlefield landscapes and a knowledge of traditional tactics. The scope includes battles in mainland Greece, Asia Minor and Sicily. Combatants include numerous Greek city states as well as Persian and Carthaginian armies. Ray concludes his survey with tabular analyses of known factors in the outcome of battle. He also reviews the battle records of ten city–states, Persia and Greek mercenaries. While not intended as a definitive source for classical historians, this volume will provide significant detail for the study of ancient warfare for general readers and students of military history.