Events in Hispanic American History, 1826 – 1850
Slavery in Mexico is abolished by the new republican government
that emerges after independence.
Anglo-Texans resist the military rule of Antonio López de Santa
Anna, dictator of Mexico. Santa Anna leads a large army north to San
Antonio, Texas, and surrounds the Texans at the Alamo mission. Eventually
the Mexican army kills all the resisters. Six weeks later Anglo-Texan
forces defeat the Mexican forces and declare the Republic of Texas
independent of Mexico.
The Texas constitution stipulates that all residents living in Texas at
the time of the rebellion will acquire all the rights of citizens of the
new republic, but if they had been disloyal, these rights are forfeited.
Numerically superior Anglos force Mexicans off their property, and many
cross the border to Mexico.
To meet the wage-labor demands, 125,000 Chinese are brought to
Cuba between 1840 and 1870 to work as cane cutters, build railroads in
rural areas, and serve as domestics in the cities. Also, the influx of
European immigrants, primarily from Spain, increases during that period.
Newly arrived Spaniards become concentrated in the retail trades and
operate small general stores called bodegas.
Texas is officially annexed to the United States. This angers the
Mexican government and a conflict arises over the official border between
Texas and Mexico.
The United States invades Mexico under the banner of Manifest
Destiny. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the Mexican War that same
year. Under the treaty, half the land area of Mexico, including Texas,
California, most of Arizona and New Mexico, and parts of Colorado, Utah,
and Nevada, is ceded to the United States. The treaty gives Mexican
nationals one year to choose U.S. or Mexican citizenship. Approximately
75,000 Hispanic people choose to remain in the United States and become
citizens by conquest.
The gold rush lures a flood of Anglo settlers to California,
which becomes a state in 1850. Settlement in Arizona and New Mexico occurs
at a slower pace, and they both become states in 1912.
The Foreign Miners Tax, which levies a charge for anyone who is
not a U.S. citizen, is enacted.
Almanac, Gale, 1997.