Events in Hispanic American History, 1801 – 1825
Large, sprawling haciendas with huge herds of cattle and sheep
characterize the economy and society of northeast New Spain.
A powerful France under Napoleon Bonaparte acquires from Spain
the Louisiana Territory, which was ceded during the Seven Years' War in
the previous century. Napoleon, vying for dominance in Europe and in need
of quick revenue, sells the vast territory to the United States, thus
expanding the borders of the infant nation to connect directly with New
To the consternation of Spain, President Thomas Jefferson funds
the historical expedition of Lewis and Clark. Spain is obviously worried
that the exploration is a prelude to the settlement of the territory by
In Mexico, Father Miguel Hidalgo y Castilla leads a grass roots
movement for independence from Spain. He and his followers set up a
government and take several cities, but are defeated by the royalists in
Mexico City. Hidalgo is executed, but the Spanish hold on Mexico is
September 16. With the insurrection of Father Miguel Hidalgo y
Castilla, the Spaniards withdraw their troops from the frontier presidios.
An insurrection breaks out in Texas, fighting against Spanish control.
Royalists crush the rebellion.
Father José María Morelos y Pavón declares Mexico's independence
from Spain once again. A constitution is drafted and proclaimed in 1814,
but royalists again defeat the new government.
José Matías Delgado, a priest, gives the first call for Central
American independence from Spain in San Salvador.
Simón Bolívar leads an army of revolutionaries, winning victory
over the Spanish in new Granada (now Colombia) in 1819, in Venezuela in
1821, and in Quito (now in Ecuador) in 1822. Proclaiming the birth of the
Republic of Gran Colombia, which included present-day Venezuela, Ecuador,
and Colombia, Bolívar becomes president.
Andrew Jackson leads a U.S. military force into Florida, capturing two
Anglo-American frontiersman Stephen Long leads a revolt against
the Spanish in Texas, but because of his ties to the United States, his
rebellion threatens to open Texas to American control. Spain finally
enters into deliberations with Moses Austin, a Catholic from Missouri, to
settle Anglo-Catholic families in Texas.
Mexico acquires its independence from Spain, when liberals, Freemasons,
and conservative Creoles (Spanish Americans) unite to support Creole Agustín
de Iturbide. Itubide and his army take Mexico City in September.
Independent Mexico at this time includes settlements in California,
southern Arizona, south Texas, southern Colorado, and most of New Mexico.
Soon after Mexico gains independence, Anglo-American settlers begin to
move into the Mexican territories of the present-day U.S. Southwest,
The sun sets on Spanish Florida when the peninsula is purchased
by the United States for $5 million.
Erasmo Seguín, a delegate to the national congress from Texas,
persuades a willing U.S. Congress to pass a colonization act designed to
bring even more Anglo settlers to Texas. Between 1824 and 1830, thousands
of Anglo families enter east Texas, acquiring hundreds of thousands of
free acres and buying land much cheaper than they could have in the United
States. By 1830, Texas has 18,000 Anglo inhabitants and their African
slaves, who number more than 2,000.
Fray Junípero de Serra's death does not stop missionary activity
in California. His fellow Franciscans establish another 12 missions. The
famous mission trail of California includes the missions
- San Diego de Alcalá (1769)
- San Carlos de Monterey (1770)
- San Antonio de Padua (1771)
- San Gabriel Arcángel (1771)
- San Luis Obispo de Tolosa (1772)
- San Francisco de Asís (1776)
- San Juan Capistrano (1776)
- Santa Clara de Asís (1777)
- San Buenaventura (1782)
- Santa Bárbara (1786)
- La Purísima Concepción (1787)
- Santa Cruz (1791)
- San José de Guadalupe (1797)
- San Juan Bautista (1797) San Miguel Arcángel (1797)
- San Fernando Rey (1797)
- San Luis Rey (1798)
- Santa Inés (1804)
- San Rafael Arcángel (1817)
- San Francisco Solano (1823).
Almanac, Gale, 1997.