July 11-13. W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter were among the leaders of the meeting from which sprung the Niagara Movement, the forerunner of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
April. The National Urban League was established.
September 27. W. C. Handy published "Memphis Blues."
September 9. Carter G. Woodson founded the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History.
February 19-21. The First Pan-African Congress met in Paris, France, under the guidance of W. E. B. Du Bois.
August 1-2. The national convention of Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Society met in New York City. Garvey would be charged with mail fraud in 1923. He was convicted in 1925 and deported in 1927 after serving time in prison.
These are the years usually assigned to the Harlem Renaissance, which marks an epoch in black literature and art.
May 8. A. Philip Randolph organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.
April 6. Nine young blacks were accused of raping two white women in a boxcar. They were tried for their lives in Scottsboro, Alabama, and hastily convicted. The case attracted national attention.
August 9. Jesse Owens won four gold medals at the Summer Olympics in Berlin.
June 22. Joe Louis defeated James J. Braddock to become heavyweight boxing champion of the world.
October 16. Benjamin O. Davis, Sr., became the first black general in the United States Army.
June 25. President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order forbidding discrimination in defense industries after pressure from blacks led by A. Philip Randolph.
June. Some blacks and whites organized the Congress of Racial Equality in Chicago. They led a sit-in at a Chicago restaurant.
April 24. The United Negro College Fund was founded.
October 2. The first working, production-ready model of a mechanical cotton picker was demonstrated on a farm near Clarksdate, Mississippi.
April 19. Jackie Robinson became the first black to play major league baseball.